Appendix to the Paper: Relationship between HIV and AIDS


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This was not written by the NIH - Axel Boldt added it. Please send corrections and additions to

A much more comprehensive, huge glossary of AIDS related terms is available at

A class of proteins used by the immune system to mark antigens for later destruction. Every antibody type has a specific structure which lets it bind to a certain molecule appearing in an antigen's hull. They are produced by lymphocytes and plasma cells. B-lymphocytes, upon contact with antigen, mature into plasma cells that synthesize antibody. A detailed explanation of the human immune system can be found at
Any substance or microorganism that initiates an immune response, such as poisons, viruses, foreign tissue, fungi, or bacteria. A detailed explanation of the human immune system can be found at
AIDS-related conditions (?), a name for the symptom complex commonly found in AIDS patients such as a decrease in CD4 T-helper cells, recurrent fevers, unexplained weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and/or fungus infection of the mouth and throat.
Not showing any subjective evidence of disease. In other words: someone is asymptomatic if they feel ok.
Zidovudine, also called Retrovir, the most common drug used to combat AIDS. It works by disturbing the action of the encyme reverse transciptase. (?)
Infection with a certain yeast-like fungus.
CD4 T lymphocytopenia
Reduction of the number of CD4 T helper cells in the blood.
CD4 T helper cells
T cells are lymphocytes that are thymus-dependent (i.e. they either pass through the thymus or are influenced by it on their way to the tissues). They can suppress or assist the stimulation of antibody production in B-lymphocytes. Those that assist are called T helper cells. CD4 is a certain molecule found on the surface of some T helper cells; those are then called CD4 (or CD4+) T helper cells.
cellular cytotoxicity responses
A group of chronic liver diseases characterized by a certain change in liver tissue structure.
The process of clot formation.
A group of individuals sharing a statistical characteristic who are used in epidemiologic studies of disease.
Referring to conditions that are present at birth.
constitutional disease
A disease that affects the whole constitution of the body; not local.
Blood contained within the vessels of the navel cord at the time of delivery of the infant.
cryptococcal meningitis
Inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord caused by certain yeastlike microorganisms.
Resulting from the addition of all successive cases.
A type of herpes virus that causes salivary gland disease, which is characterized by several abnormities of the white blood cells and is similar to the syndrome caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus.
Producing pathological changes in cells.
Occuring only in one member of a twin pair
Scattered; distributed over a considerable area.
A complex molecule present in all living cells and carrying the genetic information. This information is used by the cell to synthesize proteins using RNA.
Ebola virus
A retrovirus causing a highly fatal bleeding fever. Outbreaks have occured in Central Africa.
Any disease of the brain showing deterioation.
Pertaining to disease of the bowel.
Epstein-Barr virus
A herpes-like virus that causes a disease characterized by several abnormities of the white blood cells.
Affecting the gullet, the passage between the throat and the stomach.
(The study of) the cause or origin of a disease.
Factor VIII
One of several factors crucial for the blood clotting process. Hereditary deficiency of this factor is called hemophilia. Hemophiliacs are treated with Factor VIII concentrates from blood donors.
generalized lymphocytopenia
Reduction of the count of all types of lymphocytes in the blood, as opposed to CD4+ T lymphocytopenia.
hematologic toxicity
A hereditary deficiency of coagulation Factor VIII which results in various repeating bleedings. It affects only males.
hepatitis B
Inflammation of the liver, caused by a virus which is most commonly transmitted by blood contact.
hepatocellular carcinoma
Cancer of the liver.
Of unknown causation.
The prevention or diminuition of the immune response.
Introduction of microorganisms, infective material, foreign blood, and other substances into the body; introduction of a disease agent, e.g., vaccine virus, into a healthy individual to produce a mild form of the disease followed by immunity.
The substance used in inoculation.
in vitro
In a test tube.
in vivo
Within the living body.
Disease of the lymph nodes.
A class of white blood cells, produced in the lymphoid tissue, and playing various roles in the immune system. For a detailed discussion of their function in the immune system, refer to
Tropic for lymphocytes.
lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis
Messenger RNA is used to transport the DNA information in living cells to the protein synthesizing cell parts.
Mycobacterium avium complex, infection with the variant of the tubercle bacillus that commonly produces disease in chickens and swine and only rarely infects men.
A large cell that ingests microorganisms or other cells and foreign particles. It also interacts with T- and B-lymphocytes to facilitate antibody production.
Pertaining to form and structure of an organism.
Through a mucous membrane as found in the mouth or vagina (?)
A new growth of tissue in which the multiplication of cells is uncontrolled and progressive; also called tumor.
Any disease-producing microorganism.
The cellular events and reactions and other mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.
Giving origin to disease.
Polymerase Chain Reaction, a method to detect and multiply traces of certain DNA or RNA chains.
Through the skin.
peripheral blood
Blood obtained from circulation remote from the heart, such as from a fingertip or earlobe.
The pale yellow fluid portion of the blood in which the other blood components (e.g red blood cells, white blood cells etc.) are suspended.
Caused by protozooa, the simplest animals consisting of one single cell.
the genetic material of a virus after it has been integrated into the DNA of the host cell.
Studied after the fact.
A virus is a very small infectious agent that can only replicate within a living host cell. In retroviruses, the genetic material is stored in RNA which, upon entering the host cell, is converted to DNA using reverse transcriptase. This new DNA then induces the host cell to produce more virus.
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme used by retroviruses to translate its RNA-encoded genetic information into DNA.
caused by a member of the family of Rickettsiaceae, made up of small microorganisms that often occur in the cells of insects, by which they are transmitted to man and cause disease.
A complex molecule present in all living cells. The information from the DNA is first transcribed into pieces of messenger RNA and then other forms of RNA synthesize the encoded protein.
Retroviruses carry their genetic material in RNA.
Developing of antibodies.
Showing a lack of antibodies.
Showing a high level of antibodies.
The total number of people showing antibodies.
The clear liquid which separates in the clotting of blood.
Showing an affinity for, tending to turn toward or change.
varicella zoster virus
viral burden
Amount of viruses present in the blood
viral envelope
The shell surrounding a virus and sheltering its genetic information.
The presence of viruses in the blood


These were not written by the NIH - Axel Boldt added them. Please send comments to
Last changed: 31-Jul-2000
Axel Boldt <>